Drug Courts

Drug courts help participants address their underlying illicit drug problems with the aid of a court team and community agencies and with ongoing judicial case management, which can be for more than a year. Some courts will also assist in relation to alcohol problems alone or when the participant has both alcohol and illicit drug problems. Drug courts offer community or residential based rehabilitation - sometimes in custody - and work collaboratively with community and justice agencies to promote this service. Drug courts often use a system of sanctions and incentives to promote participant compliance. A breach point system is one mechanism they use for promoting compliance. Graduation ceremonies, the use of applause in court to recognise participant achievement and the use of behavioural contracts are also common features of drug courts.

Resources

New South Wales Drug Court
New South Wales Youth Drug and Alcohol Court
Queensland Drug Court
South Australia Drug Court

Victorian Drug Court 
Western Australian Drug Court

Australian Institute of Criminology, Australian Responses to Illicit Drugs: Drug Courts. (summary of Australian drug court programs and links to evaluations of them).

Birgden A, 'A Compulsory Drug Treatment Program for Offenders in Australia: Therapeutic Jurisprudence Implications' (2008) 30 Thomas Jefferson Law Review 367.

Cappa C, 'The Social, Political and Theoretical Context of Drug Courts' (2006) 32 Monash Law Review 145.

Costanzo, J, 'Final report on the South-east Queensland Drug Court pilot' (Queensland Courts, 2003), http://www.courts.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/93914/m-drug-court-seq-pilot-costanzo-final-report.pdf

Court Drug Diversion Initiatives Conference, Brisbane, 25-26 May 2006, http://www.aic.gov.au/events/aic%20upcoming%20events/2006/drugdiversion.aspx.

Dekker J, O'Brien K and Smith N, 'An Evaluation of the Compulsory Drug Treatment Program (CDTP)' (NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, 2010), http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/bocsar/ll_bocsar.nsf/vwFiles/L20.pdf/$file/L20.pdf.

Dive R, Killen M, Cole D and Poder A, 'NSW Youth Drug Court Trial' Paper presented to the 'Juvenile Justice: From the Lessons of the Past to a Road Map for the Future' conference, Sydney, 1-2 September 2003, http://www.aic.gov.au/events/aic%20upcoming%20events/2003/~/media/conferences/2003-juvenile/dive.ashx.

Dive R, 'Sentencing Drug Offenders' Paper presented to the 'Sentencing: Principles, Perspectives and Possibilities' conference, Canberra, 10-12 February 2006,  http://njca.anu.edu.au/Professional%20Development/programs%20by%20year/2006/Sentencing%20Conference/Sen%20conf%20papers%202006/Dive.pdf.

Dive R, 'Judging in the Land of the Chaotic' (2011) 20 Journal of Judicial Administration 185.

Foster J, 'A Drug Court: A Police Perspective' in Reinhardt G and Cannon A (eds), Transforming Legal Processes in Court and Beyond (AIJA, 2007) 107.

Freiberg A, 'Australian Drug Courts' (2000) 24 Criminal Law Journal 213.

Freiberg A, 'Drug Courts: Sentencing Responses to Drug Use and Drug-Related Crime' (2002) 27 Alternative Law Journal 282.

Freiberg A, 'Australia's Drug Courts' (2004) 2(1) Of Substance 12.

Heath S, 'Innovations in Western Australian Magistrates Courts' Paper delivered to the 2005 Colloquium of the Judicial Conference of Australia, http://www.jca.asn.au/content/attachments/2005-Heath_Paper.pdf.

Hora, Peggy Fulton, 'The Synergy Between Therapeutic Jurisprudence and Drug Treatment Courts' in Reinhardt G and Cannon A (eds), Transforming Legal Processes in Court and Beyond (AIJA, 2007) 155.

Indermaur D and Roberts L, (2003) 'Drug Courts in Australia: The First Generation' 15(2) Current Issues for Criminal Justice Journal 136.

Jones C and Kemp R, ‘The Strength of the Participant-Judge Relationship Predicts Better Drug Court Outcomes’ (2014) 21(2) Psychiatry, Psychology and Law 165.

King MS, 'Challenges Facing Australian Court Drug Diversion Initiatives' Keynote Address, Court Drug Diversion Initiatives Conference, Brisbane, 25-26 May 2006, http://www.aic.gov.au/events/aic%20upcoming%20events/2006/~/media/conferences/2006-drugdiversion/keynoteking.ashx.

King MS, 'Perth Drug Court Practice' (2006) 33(11) Brief 27.

King MS and Piggott L, 'Mirroring the Stages of Change in the Establishment of Problem Solving Courts' in Reinhardt G and Cannon A (eds), Transforming Legal Processes in Court and Beyond (AIJA, 2007) 161.

King, Michael S., New Directions in the Courts' Response to Drug and Alcohol Related Legal Problems: Interdisciplinary Collaboration (2012) Paper presented to the ‘Making it Happen: Improving Services Through Collaboration’ conference, Perth, Western Australia, 6-8 August 2012.

Makkai T, 'Drug Courts: Issues and Prospects' (Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice n 95, 1998), http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/tandi/81-100/tandi095.aspx.

Moore L, Tackling Drug Crime the TJ Way: Report on Therapeutic Jurisprudence and the Tasmanian Court Mandated Diversion Program (January 2012). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1992734 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1992734

Moore L, Measures of Success: Capturing the Impact of Drug Courts (December 20, 2012). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2236482

Moore L, ‘International Best Practice in Drug Courts’ (2014) 7 Arizona Summit Law Review 481.

Payne J,  The Queensland Drug Court: A Recidivism Study of the First 100 Graduates (Australian Institute of Criminology, Research and Public Policy Series no 83,2008), http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/rpp/81-99/rpp83.aspx.

Previtera T, 'Responsibilities of TJ Team Members v Rights of Offenders' (2006) 1 eLaw Journal (special series) 51, https://elaw.murdoch.edu.au/archives/issues/special/responsibilities.pdf.

Tasmania Law Reform Institute, The Establishment of a Drug Court Pilot in Tasmania (2006), http://www.law.utas.edu.au/reform/reports_publications.htm

Took G, 'Therapeutic Jurisprudence and the Drug Courts: Hybrid Justice and its Implications for Modern Penality' (2005) Internet Journal of Criminology, http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Glenn%20Took%20-%20Therapeutic%20Jurisprudence.pdf.

Wexler DB and King MS, ‘Promoting Societal and Juridical Receptivity to Rehabilitation: The Role of Therapeutic Jurisprudence’ (October 17, 2011). Court-supervised treatment alternatives to incarceration for drug-dependent offenders: the drug policy agenda. Caroline S. Cooper & Antonio Lomba eds., 2013 Forthcoming; Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 10-46. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1722278

Wexler DB and King MS, ‘Promoting Societal and Juridical Receptivity to Rehabilitation: The Role of Therapeutic Jurisprudence’ (October 17, 2011). Court-supervised treatment alternatives to incarceration for drug-dependent offenders: the drug policy agenda. Caroline S. Cooper & Antonio Lomba eds., 2013 Forthcoming; Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 10-46. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1722278

Wilson A, ‘Putting therapeutic jurisprudence on edge: a gendered engagement’ (2014) 47(3) University of British Columbia Law Review 1185.